What does Mirzoeff mean by Visual Activism and Visual Thinking?
Mirzoeff says that visual thinking is not something we can simply study, but rather we, “have to engage with it ourselves” (Mirzoeff 289). Visual thinking is a way of expressing our thoughts and ideas visually – through mediums such as art, installations and performances. It allows people to convey meaning in ways not possible through written or verbalised work. Mirzoeff writes that visual culture have changed significantly over the last 25 years and, “has now converged around Visual Activism” (Mirzoeff 289). Visual activism is a way for artists and designers to create and inspire change in a world in crisis. Grace Lee Boggs sees it as a way to move, “beyond making a living to make a life”, meaning that art can be a vehicle for positive change (qtd. in Mirzoeff 294). Visual activists question concepts of representation which Mirzoeff split into two categories – representation of events, experiences and hopes, and representation in terms of a representative government (Mirzoeff 256). Visual activism creates new ways of being seen and seeing the world. The development of social media has aided visual activism by increasing the audience, thus allowing more people to see and respond to the work.
Possible Topics Brainstorm
From this brainstorm I have decided to focus on human trafficking as it is something I want to learn more about.
Human Trafficking is defined as “The recruitment and/or movement of someone within or across borders, through the abuse of power/position with the intention of forced exploitation, commercial or otherwise” (Human Trafficking Centre).
Types of Trafficking include:
- Sex Trafficking
- Forced Labour
- Domestic servitude
- Forced marriage
- Child soldiering
- Forced begging
- Forced criminal activity
- Organ trafficking
Who is vulnerable?
- Displaced people (due to environmental crisis, political unrest, or social reasons).
- Minorities and marginalised groups.
- Survivors of interpersonal violence and homelessness.
- Those who are economically vulnerable and/or living in poverty – traffickers prey on these people’s desperation offering the chance for employment and opportunity.
- Estimates of the number of people trafficked globally range between 20 – 37 million. The International Labour Organisation gives the estimate of 20.9 million people which appears to be the number used by many of the sites I have come across (Human Trafficking Center).
- $150.2 billion illegal profit yearly (Human Trafficking Center).
- Approximately 80 per cent are female. Up to 50% are minors (Stop the Traffik).
- It is the second largest source of illegal income worldwide, exceeded by drug trafficking (Stop the Traffik)
Not for Sale – This organisation’s purpose is to break the cycle of human trafficking and helps support survivors and at-risk communities.
Human Trafficking Centre – This nonprofit, research organisation’s goal is to use reliable research to understand human trafficking and forced labour to help raise public awareness.
Art Works for Freedom – This organisation uses art and creativity to help stop, and raise awareness, of human trafficking.
Free the Slaves – This organisation’s purpose is to help free people caught in the modern day slave industry, provide support for survivors and help prevent those in at-risk communities being pulled into slavery.
The No Project – This organisation targets youth awareness about human trafficking.
A21 – Another organisation looking to stop human trafficking through prevention, protection, prosecution and partnership.
HAART – An organisation looking to stop human trafficking in Kenya
Stop the Traffik – A British organisation against human trafficking – they have lots of great videos as well.
Human Trafficking Center Blog – This blog is run by faculty and graduate students from the Josef Korbel School of International Studies at the University of Denver. It has lots of great posts and discussions around human trafficking and forced labour.
joelartista.com – An artist using his art to create change.
HAART Stories – A blog with stories from victims of human trafficking, and those in connection with it.
HAART Art – Art around human trafficking.
Ross Kemp Documentary – a particularly hard hitting documentary with real interviews and footage. The interview with a trafficker was especially horrific as he admits to killing many of the girls he trafficks.
- The ending line in this video, “If men didn’t buy her, pimps couldn’t sell her” really made me think. It is easy to just think about the actual people running sex trafficking, but what about the customer? Trafficking is a business and thus works by the supply and demand rule. Perhaps I could look into why there is such a high demand by looking into the growing rape culture, pornography and the sexualisation/ dehumanisation of women in advertising and media.
This was a very hard hitting video as the speaker, Lisa Kristine, recounted her personal experiences with seeing people involved in slavery. She discusses various types of trafficking – all as horrific as each other.
- “It’s important to note that slavery, including sex trafficking, occurs in our own backyard as well. Tens of hundreds of people are enslaved in agriculture, in restaurants, in domestic servitude, and the list can go on. Recently, the New York Times reported that between 100,000 and 300,000 American children are sold into sex slavery every year. It’s all around us. We just don’t see it” (Kristine).
“ArtWorks for Freedom.” ArtWorks for Freedom. ArtWorks for Freedom, n.d. Web. 18 May 2016.
Cranshaw, Sophia. “MTVu Human Trafficking PSA.” YouTube. YouTube, 09 Nov. 2011. Web. 18 May 2016.
“Free the Slaves.” Free the Slaves. Free the Slaves, n.d. Web. 18 May 2016.
Human Trafficking Center. “Human Trafficking Center | Academic Research and Advocacy.” Human Trafficking Center. Human Trafficking Center, n.d. Web. 19 May 2016.
Human Trafficking Center. “About the Problem.” Human Trafficking Center. Human Trafficking Center, n.d. Web. 18 May 2016.
Kemp, Ross. “Ross Kemp Extreme World Series.” Dailymotion. Dailymotion, n.d. Web. 18 May 2016.
Kleiman, Eden. 2016. Possible Issues Mind Map. Digital Image.
Kristine, Lisa. “Witness: Illuminating the World of Modern-day Slavery: Lisa Kristine at TEDxMaui.”YouTube. YouTube, 26 Apr. 2012. Web. 18 May 2016.
Mirzoeff, Nicholas. How to See the World. London: Pelican, 2015. Print.
“Not For Sale Home.” Not For Sale. Not For Sale, n.d. Web. 18 May 2016.
STOPTHETRAFFIK. “STOP THE TRAFFIK.” YouTube. YouTube, 11 Aug. 2014. Web. 18 May 2016.
STOP THE TRAFFIK. “People Shouldn’t Be Bought and Sold.” STOP THE TRAFFIK. STOP THE TRAFFIK, n.d. Web. 18 May 2016.
“The NO Project.” The NO Project. The NO Project, n.d. Web. 18 May 2016.
What is Human Trafficking. Digital image. Human Trafficking. UNODC, n.d. Web. 18 May 2016.
This mindmap has my research from this week – looking into the types of human trafficking, who the victims are, causes, globalisation, consequences, responses and solutions. It also has some thought provoking quotes I have pulled out of my research.
Artist and Designer Research:
This poster was designed by the Union of Finnish Feminists in 2005 to raise public awareness about human trafficking – particularly in the sex industry. It shows a group of young girls sitting, very cramped, in a butcher’s display case with a star shaped sign in the background declaring, ‘Fresh Meat Daily’. This piece reveals the dehumanisation of human trafficking victims. They are treated as disposable commodities – objects to be bought, sold and used, like pieces of meat. The display case also alludes to the way girls are sold in the sex industry – quite literally lined up and put on display for the customer to take their pick. The butcher shop setting and ‘Fresh Meat Daily’ sign reveal our modern society’s obsession with consumerism – we fuel the demand for human trafficking. The girls themselves are looking away from the camera, they are faceless. This reinforces the objectification of these victims, as well as demonstrating the hidden nature of this industry and its scale. The colours are dark, and the scene is artificially lit , creating a mysterious and ominous feeling suggesting the immoral actions proceeding. The designer has taken an issue relatively hidden from the public eye and put it in a public place to confront viewers with the dehumanisation and injustices victims are faced with.
This installation showing children in a window display was created by the South African Salvation Army to raise public awareness about human trafficking. It was installed in leading South African stores and had dishevelled children of different ages and nationalities standing in shop windows with large ‘For Sale’ signs hanging behind them. It revealed the inhuman nature of human trafficking, and the complete dehumanisation of victims. This piece draws attention to child trafficking, perhaps one of the worst forms of trafficking, and confronts the public with the realities of the crime. This is a great example of visual activism as it directly confronts consumers. Being in shopping malls, people will walk past either with shopping bags, or with the intent of buying. This installation forces people to consider who made the products they are buying by being confronted with ‘human trafficking victims’. It may evoke emotions of guilt, but also passion and desire to help. On the bottom of the display the Salvation Army directly asks the viewer for help and provides a way to do so – enabling viewers to do something rather than being put off by the issue’s scale.
This is a photograph of a performance/installation by Amnesty International to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. They got a real woman to go into a transparent suitcase which was then put on active baggage claims at various airports. It serves to show that human trafficking happens all around us, all the time despite it being relatively hidden from the public eye. It is impossible not to notice and it uses shock tactics forces viewers to face the harsh reality of human trafficking. It also emphasizes the dehumanisation, and inhumane treatment of the victims. This is an effective example of visual activism in the 21st century as not only did it draw attention to those who saw it first hand, but it also went viral – with photographs and stories of it being shared in the print media, television and online, thus generating a large scale response.
This image is part of a series of three similar pieces – using different ages/genders. It was developed for the Polaris Project to raise awareness for human trafficking. Cancelmi’s piece shows a figure both surrounded by, and part of a barcode. The barcode is a very powerful piece of imagery, symbolising the dehumanisation, objectification and degradation of victims. They are treated as numbers and objects used for profit – not as equal human beings. The solid bars are also representative of jail bars – showing how victims can become trapped with no escape, and how they are at complete mercy to the traffickers. I really like the integration of the statistic into the image as these appalling statistics can be very eye opening and work towards raising awareness of the issue’s scale. The figure’s body is in a position of helplessness and desperation, emphasizing to the viewer that they need to take action – to help those who can’t help themselves.
Change Agents: A change agent is someone who is a catalyst for change. They have the ability to inspire others and call others to action.
Cultural Critics: A culture critic is someone who is a critic of a given culture. They look at both popular and classical culture, breaking down the boundary between high and low culture and discovering why certain culture products are valued more than others.
MindMap used to generate ideas for creative piece looking at purpose, medium, message and how I could portray the message. Following this process I have decided to do a poster which shows the dehumanisation of trafficking victims, and encourages viewers to buy ethically/create a demand for ethical goods. I will probably use shock tactics and a direct statement or question to increase viewer engagement.
- This is an idea I had for a poster which depicts a woman, a child and a man with a packaging label branded/tattooed on their backs – like those found on food labels or shipped products. This reveals to the viewer the dehumanisation and objectification of trafficking victims. The use of different ages/genders shows the scope of the issue and the statement’s use of personal pronouns acts as a direct challenge to the viewer.
- This is a concept I had drawn before coming across the Salvation Army installation discussed above, but it is based off the same concept. It depicts a commercial shopping street with window displays promoting their store’s products, however in one of the stores the products are people. This reveals the dehumanisation of trafficking victims into commodities to be bough, sold and used. It brings an issue hidden from the public eye into the public sphere where it can directly confront viewers – especially as they shop, consuming products likely generated from human trafficking victims.
Andrees, Beate, and Patrick Belser. Forced Labor: Coercion and Exploitation in the Private Economy. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2009. EBSCO Host. EBSCO Industries. Web. 24 May 2016.
Bales, Kevin. New Slavery. 2nd ed. California: ABC-CLIO, 2004. Print.
Cancelmi, Kristina. Barcodes. 2011. Digital Image. My Modern Met. My Modern Met, 18 Apr. 2011 Web. 25 May 2016.
Costello, Tim. “Labour Trafficking, Not Sex Trafficking Needs More Attention.” ABC News. ABC, 14 June 2011. Web. 24 May 2016.
Healey, Justin. Human Trafficking and Slavery. Vol. 348. Balmain: Spinney, 2012. Issues in Society. EBSCO Host. EBSCO Industries. Web. 24 May 2016.
Kleiman, Eden. 2016. Human Trafficking Week 10 Mind Map. Digital Image.
Kleiman, Eden. 2016. Project Ideas Mind Map. Digital Image.
Kleiman, Eden. “Stop using ignorance as an excuse Concept Drawing.” 2016. Photograph.
Kleiman, Eden. “We are Not Products Concept One.” 2016. Photograph.
Lang, Oliver. Woman locked in Suitcase. 2008. Photograph. GettyImages. Web. 25 May 2016.
Salvation Army. Human Trafficking Is a Serious Crime. n.d. Photograph. Creativity Online. Ad Age, 4 Dec. 2007. Web. 25 May 2016.
Shelley, Louise I. Human Trafficking: A Global Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2010. Print.
Union of Finnish Feminists. Fresh Meat. n.d. Digital image. Coloribus. Lixil Graphics Ltd., n.d. Web. 25 May 2016.
Following further research, I have changed the trajectory of my topic. For an effective piece of visual activism the issue needs to be specific – if it is too broad then viewers will likely feel overwhelmed and helpless at the scale of the problem. It needs to be specific enough that they feel like they can do something to make a difference. Many victims of labour trafficking end up being exploited in the fashion industry (working in textile and clothing manufacturing and production). However, these victims only make up a section of factory workers. These workers work in appalling conditions and are often treated as slaves. Therefore I want to focus my research in on the exploited workers in the fashion industry and use my project to raise awareness about what goes on on the other side of the shop counter, promote the purchase of ethical goods, and create a demand for these goods.
This Mind Map is a collation of this week’s research looking into the workers exploited in the fashion industry as well as quotes and information collected from books from Massey’s library and some academic databases.
Asia Floor Wage – a global initiative that would provide fair wages for Asian workers by having a ‘floor wage’ – a fair equal basic wage that would be used for all Asian Workers – in effect preventing companies paying their workers less as leverage in country/factory negotiations.
Artist and Designer Research:
Banksy is an anonymous graffiti artist, political activist and film director. He uses street art to comment on, and critique society – looking at social, cultural, and political issues. His work is a prime example of visual activism as he uses visual work to convey meaning, evoke a response and spark change. By using the city as his canvas he does not limit who can view his work – it is open to anyone of any age or class. He wants to create work for the people, Banksy said, “This is the first time the essentially bourgeois world of art has belonged to the people. We need to make it count.” (qtd. in Ellsworth-Jones). His 2012 mural ‘Slave Labour’ was created in protest to the use of sweatshops to produce London Olympics and Diamond Jubilee memorabilia. Banksy has taken the hidden reality of how most goods are produced and put it a public space to directly confront viewers – this is something I want to try do with my project.
I am inspired by the confrontational nature of Barbara Kruger’s work, and this is something I hope to bring into my own project. Kruger is a visual activist looking at issues around feminism and consumerism. Her pieces directly challenge and confront the viewer through the use of personal pronouns such as ‘I’, ‘we’ and ‘you’. She uses short direct statements boldly overlaid in red over black and white photographs – making them pop and stand out to the viewer. For example, on her piece ‘Untitled (Your Body is a Battleground)’ the statement ‘Your Body is a Battleground’ stands out due to the bright red colour on the monotone background and its large scale. The viewer feels challenged and is forced to consider the meaning behind these words – regarding to the rights over a women’s body.
The Craftivist Collective is a campaign fighting against the injustice workers face in the fashion industry. Their campaign is based around the idea of gentle protest – a way to provoke thought in viewers in a non threatening, beautiful way. The founder Sarah Corbett wrote,“If we want the world to be more beautiful, kind and fair, then shouldn’t our activism also be more beautiful, kind and fair?” (Craftivist Collective) This is a more subtle form of visual activism – especially in contrast to more overt protestors such as Banksy. In the lead up to the London Fashion Week they launched a project called ‘mini banners’ where people stitched tiny banners with shocking facts and statements which protested the ugly side of the fashion industry such as sweatshop conditions and unfairly treated models. Through this they hope to impact the person stitching the banner – by giving them time to stop and contemplate the issue. They also hope to engage the public in a non aggressive but thought provoking way. I was particularly interested in the first example due to the statement written and the banner’s placement. The statement reads, ‘There is no point in a globalisation that reduces the price of a child’s shoes but costs the father his job’ – referring to the effect globalisation has had on the fashion industry and the consequences for those involved in production. The banner is placed over a fashion store’s mannequin’s mouth – alluding to the masks worn by factory workers, thus forming a juxtaposition between the glamorous mannequin and those who live on the bare minimum.
These images are from a collection of work by Joe Webb exploring the inequities and injustices in our world, as well making a social commentary on how our society is so caught up in consumerist culture. He uses two different sources, from magazines and newspapers, and collages them to create juxtapositions between modern Western society and people in developing countries who face poverty, political unrest and unstable societies. These extreme contrasts make the viewer realise how carried away we can get with consumerism and self indulgence – and how there are much more important issues in the world that deserve our attention. The use of contrast is something I could possibly bring into my own work.
This powerful painting depicts a young sweatshop worker wearing an Abercrombie and Fitch T-shirt – an iconic western brand. Andersson, like Webb, has created a juxtaposition between western branding and those that make the products that fuel consumers. As consumers we are completely removed from the origins of our clothing, but this piece visibly connects products to how they were produced. It reveals to the viewer the suffering those working in sweatshops and factories endure – something that is hidden by companies from the public eye. The use of the Abercrombie & Fitch brand is not to comment on this brand in particular, but rather consumer icons in general. The boy looks directly at the viewer – challenging them, with the visible sweat and blood serving as a reminder of the brutalities he has endured.
In 2013 The Rana Plaza factory in Bangladesh collapsed, killing 1134 people and injuring thousands (Clean Clothes). The day before workers noticed cracks in the building but they were forced to continue working or be dismissed. The building was not designed to hold the weight of the top four floors or cope with the vibrations caused by the sewing machinery so the collapse was inevitable (Loomis 9). The incident brought world wide attention to the iniquitous conditions our clothes are produced. Yolanda Dominguez organised and documented various bloggers who posed, buried underneath rubble on busy public streets in Madrid. These live installations in public spaces brought awareness to the exploitation and injustices of those who produce our clothes. Some of the bloggers had luxury items such as handbags and high heels to create a juxtaposition between the realities of the worker and the products they produce to fuel western consumerist culture. This example of visual activism is very powerful as the bloggers have taken the issue of factory workers, an issue not given as much attention as it deserves, and put it in the streets to directly confront the public – in hope to create a demand for responsible production and consumption.
Concepts for creative piece:
- This idea uses Nike, an icon for Western consumerism, as a way to juxtapose Western consumerism with the hands that make our products. The play on their slogan ‘Just Do It’ relates to the way workers are forced to do things or risk violence or losing their job. It also draws a connection between the brands we know and connect to, with the workers we feel so removed from. The barcodes on the worker’s wrists reveal the dehumanisation of the workers – they are treated as numbers for profit, not as human beings.
- The last three drawings use a clothing tag on the back of a worker’s neck to show the dehumanisation of workers in factories – they are treated as numbers for profit not as equal human beings. The slogans use personal pronouns to directly challenge the viewer – like Kruger does in her work. I could play around with what goes on the tag – such as ‘care instructions’ and fabrics etc. I think I will use this concept for my final and use photography and digital manipulation to create it.
Andersson, Johan. Sweatshop Worker. N.d. Oil on Canvas and Wood. Saatchi Art. Saatchi Art. Web. 31 May 2016.
Anguelov, Nikolay. The Dirty Side of the Garment Industry : Fast Fashion and Its Negative Impact on Environment and Society. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2015. Ebook Library. Web. 30 May. 2016.
Asia Floor Wage. “What.” Asia Floor Wage. Clean Clothes Campaign, n.d. Web. 29 May 2016.
Balsiger, Philip; Johnston, Dr. Hank. The Fight for Ethical Fashion : The Origins and Interactions of the Clean Clothes Campaign. Farnham: Taylor and Francis, 2016. Ebook Library. Web. 30 May. 2016.
Banksy. Slave Labour. 2012. Photograph. The Huffington Post. AOL, 25 May 2013. Web. 26 May 2016.
Beard, Nathaniel Dafydd. “The Branding of Ethical Fashion and the Consumer: A Luxury Niche or Mass-market Reality?” The Journal of Dress, Body & Culture 12.4 (2008): 447-68. Taylor and Francis Group. Web. 30 May 2016.
Brooks, Andrew. Clothing Poverty : The Hidden World of Fast Fashion and Second-hand Clothes. London: Zed Books, 2015. Ebook Library. Web. 30 May. 2016.
Carrigan, Marylyn. “Does the Consumer Really Care?” Historic Futures. Historic Futures, 31 Oct. 2014. Web. 30 May 2016.
Chang, Leslie. “The voices of China’s workers.” YouTube. YouTube, 12 Sept. 2012. Web. 29 May 2016.
Cleanclothescampaign. “Asia Floor Wage – the animated story.” YouTube. YouTube, 25 Apr. 2013. Web. 29 May 2016.
Clean Clothes Campaign. “Rana Plaza.” Clean Clothes Campaign. Clean Clothes Campaign, n.d. Web. 29 May 2016.
Clean Clothes Campaign. “Living Wages.” Clean Clothes Campaign. Clean Clothes Campaign, n.d. Web. 29 May 2016.
Clean Clothes Campaign. “Working Hours.” Clean Clothes Campaign. Clean Clothes Campaign, n.d. Web. 29 May 2016.
Craftivist Collective. “Our Story.” Craftivist Collective. Craftivist Collective, n.d. Web. 31 May 2016.
Domínguez, Yolanda. Fashion Victims. 2013. Yolanda Domínguez. Web. 31 May 2016.
Ellsworth-Jones, Will. “The Story Behind Banksy.” Smithsonian Mag. Smithsonian, Feb. 2013. Web. 25 May 2016.
Gordan, Gem. “Empathy and Optimism for the Future of an Ethical Supply Chain.” Historic Futures. Historic Futures, 10 Mar. 2016. Web. 30 May 2016.
Kleiman, Eden. “I am not a product concept drawing.” 2016. Photograph.
Kleiman, Eden. “Just do it they said Concept Drawing.” 2016. Photograph.
Kleiman, Eden. “We are more than the products we make concept drawing.” 2016. Photograph.
Kleiman, Eden. “We are not products comparison concept.” 2016. Photograph.
Kleiman, Eden. 2016. Workers in the Fashion Industry MindMap. Digital Image.
Kruger, Barbara. Untitled (Your body is a battleground). 1989. Silkscreen Print. Barbara Kruger. The Broad, n.d. Web. 29 May. 2016.
Kruger, Barbara. Untitled (I shop Therefore I am). 1987. Silkscreen Print. Barbara Kruger. Mary Boone Gallery, n.d. Web. 29 May 2016.
Loomis, Erik. Out of Sight : The Long and Disturbing Story of Corporations Outsourcing Catastrophe. New York: The New Press, 2015. Ebook Library. Web. 30 May. 2016.
Prime, Robin. Craftivist Collective Mini Banner on mannequin. 2013. Ecouterre. Web. 31 May 2016.
Prime, Robin. Craftivist Collective Mini Banner. 2013. Ecouterre. Web. 31 May 2016.
Rainbow Collective. “Rana Plaza Survivors Call on Brands to Pay Up.” YouTube. YouTube, 17 Apr. 2014. Web. 29 May 2016.
Sarkar, Tanushree. “Understanding Product Origins.” Historic Futures. Historic Futures, 26 Oct. 2015. Web. 30 May 2016.
Wilson, Tim. “Fashion Revolution Day. Who Made Your Clothes?” Historic Futures. Historic Futures, 22 Apr. 2014. Web. 30 May 2016.
Updated Mind Map with research, ideas and resources
Further research into visual activism for final blog post:
- “In discussions about the evolving relationship between activist practices and contemporary visual culture, the Internet and social media often feature prominently as tools to connect activists, lobby governments and galvanise publics to advocate for change” (Chalabi 32)
“Digital communications increase exposure of planning processes, planners andparticipants to the public” (Frick 93).
- “Scholarly views range from cyber-optimists who argue that enhanced Internet-based communications create the opportunity for democratic discourse and participation to cyber-pessimists and skeptics who are less sanguine about the
Internet’s role” (Frick 94).
- “Emotions motivate citizens to participate and engage, and these tools provide the means for the enactment and performance of emotions in the virtual and real world” (Frick 95).
- “The Internet can facilitate citizens’ development and communication about emotional and political issues and provide space for venting emotions. Deeply held positive and negative emotions are articulated online through text, images and videos posted online” (Frick 96).
Good on You App – An innovative app that allows consumers to see the how impactful the clothes they buy are on workers and the environment – allowing for responsible consumption.
- The True Cost is an eye opening film about the reality of how our clothes are made.
Project Development & Final
- Addition of statement ‘We are worth more than the clothes you wear” acts as a challenge to the audience – similar to the confrontational nature of Barbara Kruger’s work.
- Addition of stitches allude to the inhumane, sometimes brutal treatment of the workers – not as perfect/clean as before. It will also draw the audiences eye to read what is written on the tag.
Chalabi, Deena. “What Is Visual Activism?” Journal of Visual Culture 15.1 (2016): 32-34. Sage Journals. Web. 1 June 2016.
Firth, Olivia. “Who Makes our Clothes?.” YouTube. YouTube, 8 July 2015. Web. 1 June 2016.
Frick, Karen Trapenberg. “Citizen Activism, Conservative Views & Mega Planning in a Digital Era.” Planning Theory & Practice 17.1 (2016): 93-118. Taylor & Francis Group. Web. 1 June 2016.
Hilary, John. “Has Globalization been a Success?” YouTube. YouTube, 18 April 2016. Web. 1 June 2016.
Kleiman, Eden. “Creative Piece Development One”. 2016. Digital Image.
Kleiman, Eden. “Creative Piece Development Two”. 2016. Digital Image.
Kleiman, Eden. “Creative Piece Final – We are worth more than the clothes you wear”. 2016. Digital Image.
Kleiman, Eden. “Tag idea generation & development”. 2016. Digital Image.
Kleiman, Eden. “We are not products comparison concept.” 2016. Photograph.
Kleiman, Eden. 2016. Workers in the Fashion Industry Updated MindMap. Digital Image.
Rosen, Ellen Israel. Making Sweatshops: The Globalization of the U.S. Apparel Industry. Berkeley: U of California, 2002. EBSCO. Web. 1 June 2016.
Untold. “The True Cost’ – Official Trailer.” YouTube. YouTube, 23 Apr. 2015. Web. 1 June 2016.
Untold. “The True Cost’ – Behind The Scenes.” YouTube. YouTube, 2 July 2015. Web. 1 June 2016.