Glossary 237.231


Ea: Desired state, successful closure of a sequence.

Kaitiaki: A guardian – a person with an obligation to protect the integrity of taonga, and the matauranga Maori, through their ancestry or calling.

Mana: Authority, control, leadership, and influence. Mana is drawn from ancestors and from personal contributions.

Manaia:  Beaked creatures in Maori mythology

Manaakitanga: Nurturing relationships/looking after people.

Noa: Restoring a balance –  crisis over, health restored, life returns to normal.

Pātaka: A food store house.

Pono: True and genuine.

Take-utu-ea: When there has been a wrong-doing or a breach occurs, punishment or some form of compensation occurs to reach ea – the desired state.

Taonga: Taonga works are “physical or intellectual products of matauranga Maori made possible through the medium of human industry” (Tuatahi 31). It is said that Taonga works have mauri, a life force, due to its whakapapa through the invocation of ancestors and their traditional stories. (Tuatahi 44).

Tapu: Tapu is one of the strongest forces in Maori culture and it is intrinsically linked with the concept of mana. Tapu is a spiritual code, and according to Mead, “the source of tapu goes to the heart of Maori religious thought” (30). The concept of tapu denotes sacredness and discipline – with strict rules and ceremonies existing around it. Tapu exists everywhere – in people (the head having the most tapu), objects, buildings, places and also in words (Mead 30).

Tika: Being correct.

Tūturu: Fixed, permanent or enduring.

Utu: Compensation, revenge, reciprocity.

Whanaungatanga: Focus on relationships, embracing of whakapapa.


Works Cited:

Mead, Sidney M. Tikanga Māori. Wellington, N.Z.: Huia, 2003. Print.

Tuatahi, Te Taumata. Taonga Works And Intellectual Property In Ko Aotearoa Tēnei – A Report Into Claims Concerning New Zealand Law And Policy Affecting Māori Culture And Identity. Wellington: Legislation Direct, 2011. Web. 13 Aug. 2016.